PSYC 201 Statistics

Question #1


Joe and Katy are enrolled in a psychology course. In this course, the average grade is 71 and the variance of the grades is 81. Assume that the grades are perfectly normally distributed.


  1. Joe’s final grade was 53. What percentage of students in the course had a grade lower than Joe?


  1. Katy had a final grade that was 1 standard deviation above the mean. What was her final grade?


  1. What percentage of students in the course had a higher grade than Katy?


  1. What percentage of students in the course had a grade in between Joe and Katy?




Question #2


In a recent survey, UVic students were asked to rate their opinions of “Cheese” pizza and “Pepperoni” pizza.  The ratings were on a “1” to “10” scale where “1” indicates a strong negative opinion and “10” indicates a strong positive opinion.  The histograms of the ratings are shown below:


  1. Compute and report the range, mean, median, and mode of the Cheese pizza ratings


  1. Compute and report the range, mean, median, and mode of the Pepperoni pizza ratings


  1. Do you think the two histograms show equal or unequal variability? Why or why not? (Hint: See variance formula below.)




Question #3


Imagine a researcher is interested in whether psychology majors are better at recognizing facial expressions than computer science majors.  The t-test formula (shown below) is the inferential statistic for determining whether this experiment produced “significant” difference between the two groups.


As a general rule, an experimenter would like to obtain a large t score that is greater than 1.96. What are the three factors that determine the magnitude (size) of the t score?




Question #4


Austin is a student in the Psych 201 course.  Based on personal observations, Austin thinks that left-handed individuals have a larger reading vocabulary than right-handed individuals. To test this hypothesis, Austin administered the North American Adult Reading Test (NAART) to a group of university self-identified left- and right-handed students.  The NAART is comprised of 50 written English words which all have atypical spellings (e.g., “aisle”, “chord”, “gauge”).  Previous research has indicated that performance on the NAART predicts reading ability and general verbal intelligence.



4a.) State the research (alternative) and null hypotheses in Austin’s study.


4b.) Austin averages the scores and finds that the mean score for the left-handed group was 85% correct and the mean sore for the right-handed group was only 65% correct.  Should Austin conclude that the left-handers are statistically better than the right-handers in their reading vocabulary?  Why or why not?  Please give a complete explanation for your answer.


4c.) Draw one diagram showing where the 20% mean score difference between the left-handed and right-handed groups is significant.  Explain why the diagram shows a significant difference between the two groups.


4d.)  Draw another diagram where the mean score difference of 20% between the left-handed and right-handed groups is not significant. Explain why the diagram shows that the difference is not significant.


4e.) State and explain the Type 1 and Type 2 errors that Austin might commit in the reading study.



Western Air Lines, Inc. v. Criswell

Please read the case, “Western Air Lines, Inc. v. Criswell” & discuss the following questions:

  1. What is the basis for the determination that an employer should or should not be required to test applicants on an individual basis? (25 points, 1 page, double-spaced)
  2. Should an employer have available as a defense that the cost of the tests would impose a great burden on the employer? Why or why not? (25 points, 1 page, double-spaced)
  3. What is the distinction the Criswell opinion makes between “reasonable necessity” and “reasonableness?” (25 points, 1 page, double-spaced)

BFIN445 Eurodollar Futures, Interest Rate Swap, Credit Default Swap, PVBP and Duration

Please answer all questions.

Eurodollar Futures:

  1. What is meant by a long position and a short position in Eurodollar Futures?
  2. Explain using a numerical example why a long position in a Eurodollar Futures contract loses money when interest rate increases but gains when Eurodollar quote increases.
  3. It is January now. Manager wants to refinance his assets in March and is concerned rates may rise. He wants to borrow $100m for 3 months starting March. The March expiry Eurodollar Futures Quote is 95. (i.e., 5% annual). Manager is fine with paying 5% interest on the borrowing. Compute the net cost to the manager is the Eurodollar settles at 90 in March.

Interest Rate Swap:

  1. Explain in words how annualized spot rates can be computed from annualized futures rates?
  2. It is March now. Compute the interest payments for a notional $25 million dollars if the 3-month futures quote with June expiry is 99.50 and the 3-month futures quote Sept expiry is 98.00.

Credit Default Swap:

  1. Explain what is survival probability? What is default probability?
  2. What is the meaning of protection buyer? Does a protection buyer buy a CDS contract or sell a CDS contract?

PVBP and Duration:

  1. Compute the PVBP, McCauley’s Duration and Modified Duration for the following bonds. Settlement date is September 29, 2017. Explain why the duration differs (if any) for bonds with the same maturity date. Note: For example, quotes coupon of 0.875 means coupon rate is 0.857%. Use excel Yield function to compute Yield to Maturity.
Maturity Coupon Bid Asked
11/15/2017 0.875 99.00 100.0078
11/15/2017 4.25 100.375 100.3906
  1. Compute the annual yield to maturity and annual spot rates given the following annual coupon bonds:

Accelerometer with ˆ STEMMA QT 4-Pin I2C cable and msp430

 Explain configuration for accelerometer. (5 points)

 How frequent are accelerometer values being read. (5 points)

 Explain how accelerometer values affect ball position. (5 points)

 Explain purpose and configuration of each timer used. (2 points) 

Explain how ball hitting a wall is detected. Did corners make it challenging. (3 points)


  1. Schmitz (1998) studied indirect interactions in a 3-level system: predator (Spider), herbivore (Grasshopper), and resources (Grass and Herbs). This plot shows Herb abundance with resources alone (1-level), resources and herbivores (2- level), and all three levels (Risk = spiders can’t eat, Predation =spiders eat). Based on these data, what how would you describe the impact of Spiders on Herbs here?
  2. TMII and DMII
  3. TMII but almost no DMII
  4. DMII but almost no TMII
  5. Neither TMII nor DMII


  1. Sale (1979) did a removal experiment with territorial damselfish on coral reefs. They removed individuals of three species and asked whether the individual taking over that spot would be the same species. The circular arrows represent the same species returning, while the others represent a different species colonizing a spot. What result would be most consistent with the predictions from niche theory?
  2. P. wardi replaces itself and takes over others’ sites.
  3. Each species replaces itself the great majority of the time.
  4. Each species takes over for others often, colonists are a more-or-less random “lottery”.




  1. MacNeil et al. (2005) sampled stable isotopes in sharks to ask whether they preyed on bluefish (a large-bodied, high-trophic level species) that migrate through the area in spring. Liver tissue “turns over” quickly, so its isotopic signature reflects the animal’s recent diet more strongly than other tissues like cartilage. Which interpretation of these data is most consistent with your understanding of stable isotopes?


A..Makos feed on higher trophic level food all year long.

  1. Makos prey on the spring bluefish much more than blue sharks and threshers do.
  2. All three species eat lots of bluefish in the spring.


  1. Which of the following would be an example of a trophic cascade?
  2. Praying mantises consume ladybugs, thereby increasing the population density of aphids.
  3. Mantises consume invasive Japanese ladybugs, thereby increasing the diversity of native ladybugs.
  4. Beetles drill into trees, creating habitat under the bark for leafhoppers, aphids, and other invertebrates.


  1. You collect two samples of invertebrates from two pots. Which diversity measure would indicate that Pot A had greater diversity than Pot B? Note that both A and B have the same proportions of the same taxa.


Taxon Pot A Pot B
Worm 20 200
Fly 10 100
Roach 5 50
Toad 2 20
Ant 1 10
Mpede 1 10
Cpede 1 10
  1. Shannon Index (H’) B. Probability of an Interspecific Encounter (PIE) C. Chao’s Estimator




  1. Based on this plot from Chase (2003), what would be the β richness for a really isolated pond (neighbor distance = 1000m)? Remember that β richness = γ/α.


  1. β = 1 B. β = 2.5                    C. β = 12                     D. β = 27


  1. Which of these ponds would Chase (2003) say you’d be most likely to find a


  1. Separation distance <100m
  2. Separation distance 300- 600m
  3. Separation distance >800m


  1. The Theory of Island Biogeography holds that large islands should have more species. Which of these plausible explanations is the one MacArthur and Wilson proposed?
  2. Large islands can host larger populations, which reduces extinction rates.
  3. Large islands are big targets, so they have greater immigration rates.
  4. Large islands have greater species turnover, so more species are there.


  1. Based on the IUCN Red List, the primary force that has caused animals to become threatened or endangered is


  1. Habitat loss
  2. Invasive species
  3. Climate change


  1. Most of the time, a non-native species introduced to a new place never becomes common in the new place. How would Elton explain that failure?
  2. Native species lack predators to limit their populations.
  3. Native species have better adaptations for that local environment.
  4. Native species represent more of the species pool, so they’ll “get lucky” in establishing themselves.


  1. Atlantic cod were top predators in North Atlantic Ocean food webs. Their populations crashed in the 1990’s, and the abundance of phytoplankton (their food’s food’s food) has increased dramatically. This is an example of
  2. Keystone predation
  3. Ecosystem engineering
  4. Trophic cascade




  1. Herring worms are long-lived parasites of orcas. Based on what you know about trophic relations and stable isotopes, what would you expect to be true of herring worm tissue?
  2. Ratio of δ15N to be about equal to that of orcas.
  3. Higher ratio of δ15N than orcas.
  4. Higher ratio of δ15N than free-living worms, but lower than orcas.


  1. The simple web below goes from a top predator (A) to intermediate consumers (B, C, D) to phytoplankton (E and F). Suppose a disease wiped out species B. Which result would support top-down control of populations in this food web?
  2. Populations of Species A decrease.
  3. Populations of Species C increase.
  4. Populations of Species D increase.


  1. Suppose you had data for 20 open and 50 covered samples of soil invertebrates. Based on the richness observed in the samples collected, which type of habitat do you think has greater diversity?
  2. open samples
  3. covered samples
  4. they have equal diversity
  5. One important difference between the conservation of terrestrial and marine animals is that
  6. Marine animals tend to disperse over far greater distances.
  7. Marine animals have less complex life cycles.
  8. Marine animals experience greater temperature stress due to climate change.



Short answers (6 pts unless noted otherwise)

  1. The Oostvaardersplassen is a natural park in the Netherlands that aims to “re-wild” the wetland and grassland ecosystem near Amsterdam. What is the biggest difference between the current ecosystem and the one the planners were trying to re-create (eg, the area about 5,000 years ago)? What would you recommend they do to make the current system more closely match the “natural” state?







  1. A new species of crayfish, which has European origin, appears in a pond in a nature preserve in VA. The plot shows the rank-abundance for taxa before the crayfish colonized the pond (open red) and after (filled blue).

(a) How has the crayfish altered the richness and evenness of the pond community?











  1. Rangers in the Everglades cruise roads at night to survey mammal abundance. Their observations found that most mammals were far more common before pythons were present (green filled) than after they had established (red open).

Give two effects pythons could have on mammals to account for the decline in observations. Note that direct predation by pythons will not fit for either effect.


Effect type Description
Trait-mediated direct  
Density-mediated indirect  




  1. Potluck. Write a good question from this part of the course that could be worth six points. Note that good questions involve some analysis, not just ask respondents to report facts. “What is β diversity?” wouldn’t qualify, but “How would Chase (2003) expect β diversity to change in a network of ponds if you started fertilizing them regularly?” would.










(b) Write a full-credit answer to your question.













  1. How to manage wild horses in western North America is a controversial topic. Given what we’ve read about them, make an argument for why we should or shouldn’t consider them to be a harmful invasive species here.


















  1. (3 pts) What advice would you give to students who were about to take this course? What should they do to be successful in this class? With your permission, I’ll attach some of your advice to next fall’s syllabus.
























Equations galore!


















 Good luck!


Is this and multiple stable equilibria the same thing?

tele-medicine delivery systems

Research tele-medicine delivery systems and select one that is appropriate for a specific healthcare organization. Your paper will include the following and will be presented in the final Week 8 live class as though you were presenting the option to the organization’s leadership for their approval:

  • Reasoning and justification for the use of tele-medicine technologies
  • Networking infrastructure that must be in place to support tele-medicine
  • Regulations that exist governing tele-medicine and healthcare networks
  • Plans to secure healthcare data in transmission over the network
  • Plans for managing network uptime and redundancy
  • Selection of a tele-medicine delivery system that meets the needs of the organization, including at least two others you have researched and why they were not selected. Write 6-8 APA-formatted page.

Question 2: Presentation

Based on this Assessment , present your technical summary and system selection. Your presentation should be at least 8-10 slides and last approximately 10-12 minutes, depending on the number of students in the class and time available. Presentations will be given as though to the organization’s leadership for their review and approval.

education and teaching

1- What makes the “one size fits all” paradigm in teaching and testing so appealing to policy makers and some educators?

This assignment supports student learning objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5.

2-List and discuss the characteristics of a high-quality early childhood care and education program. As a classroom teacher, how will you assure that your classroom meets standards for high quality?

This assignment supports student learning objectives 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Puckett, Margaret B. Meaningful Assessments of the Young Child: Celebrating Development and Learning. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall, 2008.You will adopt this source, and I will send its pages to quote from it, and another external source can be adopted


This is a finance one, years ago you invested in 7 acres of land at the edge of town with the
thought of expanding your business on the property sometime in the future. In the years since
you bought the property the city expanded around your acres and now you see an opportunity
to sell your property. You have also started a different building project that you do not have
fully funded and will need to borrow money unless you are able to sell the property on the
edge of town.
The building project is being done over several years and has a $19,000,000 price tag. You have
secured 12 million so far, can restructure another 2 million dollars with internal borrowing, but
are counting on 5 million from the sale of the land to avoid borrowing that amount. You have
not received any offers for the full amount but have received offers around 3 million but feel
that is far below the value of the land and you do not want to give it away. At some point you
will need to borrow the 5 million as the project is completed early in 2023. You estimate a
business loan will have an interest rate of around 6 percent annually. Prepare a business
proposal using financial functions like pmt or fv to predict when you would be better off taking
a low offer (Scenario Manager might be a good tool) rather than waiting for the land to sell at
your asking price. You should show what the loan is going to cost over time vs. what it would
cost if you took a lower offer – I would suggest you model it based on a sale of both 3 million
and 4 million. Charts/graphs along with payment plans showing interest and principal over
time to help me understand when it starts costing more to wait for the full offer vs. taking a
lower offer now. If you think you can secure a lower interest loan you could show the costs
based on lower (or higher) rates as well.

MAT 510 Business Statistics

The research department of an appliance manufacturing firm has developed a new bimetallic thermal sensor for its toaster. The new bimetallic thermal sensor can sense the temperature of the bread and move the lever arm to activate the switch. The research department claims that the new bimetallic thermal sensor will reduce appliance returns under the one-year full warranty by 2%–6%. To determine if the claim can be supported, the testing department selects a group of the toasters manufactured with the new bimetallic thermal sensor and a group with the old thermal sensor and subjects them to a normal year’s worth of wear. Out of 250 toasters tested with the new bimetallic thermal sensor, 8 would have been returned. Seventeen would have been returned out of the 250 toasters with the old thermal sensor. As the manager of the appliance manufacturing process, use a statistical procedure to verify or refute the research department’s claim.


Create 8–10 slides, including a cover and a sources list, for a presentation to the director of the manufacturing plant in which you:

  1. Summarize the problem with the appliance manufacturing firm’s toaster.
  2. Propose the statistical inference to use to solve the problem. Support your decision using a scholarly reference.
  3. Using Excel:
    • Develop a flowchart for the proposed statistical inference, including specific steps.
    • Compute all statistical calculations.
  4. Place your flowchart in a slide.
  5. Determine if you can verify or refute the research department’s claim.
  6. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignment. For help with research, writing, and citation, access the library or review library guides.

Unit 7 – Health Care Data: Strategies, Services Alignment & Data Governance

Below is an outline of the items for which you will be responsible throughout the week.


DUE: Early in the week

Read the following early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

Required Textbook Readings

      1. Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (2022). Health Care Information Technology Management .  In Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (5th Ed.). Health care information systems a practical approach for health care management  (pp 113-142.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass . . – (WO 1,2,3)
      2. Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (2022). Data Governance and Analytics.  In Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (5th Ed.). Health care information systems a practical approach for health care management  (pp 237-258.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass . . – (WO 1,2,3)
      3. Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (2022). Emerging Technology Management.  In Wager, K. A., Glaser, J., & Lee, F. W. (5th Ed.). Health care information systems a practical approach for health care management  (pp 287-306). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass . . – (WO 1,2,3)
      4. Maron, J. (2020). The Shared Responsibility of Implementing Value-based Health CareClinical Therapeutics, 42(1), 7–9. (WO 1,2,3)
      5. Nokkala, T., & Dahlberg, T. (2019). Empowering citizens through data interoperability – data federation applied to consumer-centric healthcareFinnish Journal of eHealth and eWelfare, 11(4). (WO 1,2,3)
      6. DeCamp, M. (2019). Patients’ Views About Patient Engagement and Representation in Healthcare Governance. Journal of Healthcare Management /, 64(5), 332–346. (WO 1,2,3)



DUE: Day 2 (Tuesday)

View the Unit 7 Lecture and Learning Content Video on the following topics:


    1. What is Data Governance– (WO 1,2,3)
    2. Data Governance Explained – (WO 1,2,3)




DUE: Day 3 (Wednesday) -32 Points

Initial Discussion Post:  Post your 500-600 word response to the assigned discovery questions (DQ) to the Group Discussion Board.  Access the groups through the “Discussion Board ” link in the left menu bar.  Each student is assigned a discussion question. Locate your assigned group and select its link.  Scroll down to Group Tools and select the Group Discussion Board link. Finally, select your group discussion board and create a thread to post your assignment. Please note: It is recommended to backup your initial discussion post in a Word Document in an event of any technical issues.

Discovery Questions

DQ2 –  Determine and justify if consumers should continue to have a role in data governance to address shared-decision making  based on the known challenges of data literacy. (WO2,3)




Discussion will include the following 4 components:

– Add new information or viewpoints

– Provide context by example, inference, explanation, or comparison

– Critically evaluate discussion content

– Challenge, question, or refute discussion content or accepted knowledge





Unit 7: Learning Content – Improving Data Data Governance

LEARNING CONTENT – Data Governance Explained

Based on the topics covered in this course it is important to consider what may make data governance better. The role of health care professionals and consumers should be considered. It is important to consider if all stakeholders have the same role in maintaining data governance. The video below provides a brief explaination of Data Governance using various industries as they may be applied to healthcare.


Click below to watch the online video.



Watch Video

Data Governance Explained

Duration: 7:47
User: n/a – Added: 5/20/22

IBM Technology (2022, May 5th)  Data Governance Explained [Video File]. YouTube






Reflect of what you have learned in week 1-7 of the course.  Answer the following questions in 250-300 words based on your own individual learning experience. There should be no collaboration with other students.

    1. How do you apply your previous course units into the data exploration, management and governance covered in Unit 5-7?
    2. How would you apply what you learned so far in this course since Unit 5-7 to your professional life if asked to work with data?
    3. What’s your greatest “take away” learning so far in this course for regarding health care data (collection, management, information to knowledge) ? Why?
    4. What unanswered questions remain?





Unit 7: Summary


The course began discussing Health Information Sysems as the tool for data collection, storage and retrieval. Another role is to convert data to information and knowledge. In other units we addressed the importance of data literacy, quality and security of data. In Unit 5 all students had the hands on simulation with an I2B2 database and given the opportunity to present  individuals conversion of data into information and knowledge. Each of you has shown that there is not one way in which the task can be done. In the final unit we took a closer look at governance and data management which is dependent on data literacy, data quality and security.


Through the completion of this course you have gained knowledge and skills in key area of Health Informatics presented as the American Medical Informatics (AMIA) domains in the field of Health Informatics. The American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) provides information about the knowledge and skills required by a  Health Informatics Professional.


The AMIA domains covered in this course include the following:


  • F2 Information Science and Technology 

F2: Demonstrate fundamental knowledge of information science concepts; methods and tools to locate, interpret, synthesize and integrate information; and how these methods and tools influence the evolution of health care data into knowledge.

  • F4 Health Information Science and Technology

F4 #1: Demonstrate the appropriate application of healthcare information technology and systems thinking; methods and tools and standards to analyze, design, develop and implement solutions to address specific healthcare systems challenges.  (how to move data around etc design a solution)

F4#2: Demonstrate the appropriate application of methods, tools, and computational thinking to collect, organize, visualize, integrate data and to design and develop systems that address stakeholders needs and environment context.   (now that you have a solution, turning the information to knowledge)


  • F6 Social, Behavioral Aspects of Health

F6# 2  Demonstrate the ability to consider role of social determinants, patient generated data and informed decision-making to improve health outcomes.

  • F10. Leadership

F10 #2: Demonstrate behaviors and effective communication to motivate, direct and guide stakeholders, building collaborations throughout the organization and bringing resources to projects, programs, and people to accomplish a health informatics vision.


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