## exam

1. How many young people are there if there are 35 old people and the ratio of old to young is 7 to 1?
 A) 7 B) 1 C) 21 D) 5 E) 10

1. If 28 out of 100 persons, on average, prefer to watch action movies, what is the nearest full percentage of those people, rounded to the nearest multiple of ten?
 A) 28% B) 2.8% C) 0.28% D) 30% E) 0.2%

1. One and a half pieces are required for one man to eat. There are four and a half portions required for three men to eat. How many servings are required if there are twelve men eating?
 A) Twelve B) Fourteen C) Sixteen D) Eighteen E) Twenty

1. A beverage with five measures of pineapple juice, one measure of orange juice, and three measures each of lime juice and orange juice. Five beverages will need to be made, so
 A) Twenty-five measures of pineapple juice, 25 measures of orange juice, and 15 measures of lime juice. B) 15 measures of pineapple juice, 12 measures of lime juice, and 5 measures of orange juice C) 15 measures of lime juice, 6 measures each of orange and pineapple juice, and 20 measures of each. D) Six measures of orange juice, 15 measures of pineapple juice, and 15 measures of lime juice. E) 25 measures of pineapple juice, 12 measures of lime juice, and 4 measures of orange juice

1. A t-shirt costs \$4 extra for every ten people who purchase one. The t-starting shirt’s cost was \$24. The t-shirt is purchased by 22 individuals. What is the current price of it?
 A) \$36 B) \$34 C) \$32 D) \$30 E) \$28

1. An organization that provides physical training maintains a ratio of at least three instructors to every ten students. The number of teachers must always be even. What is the minimal number of instructors needed in the organization if there are 110 pupils there?
 A) 34 B) 33 C) 32 D) 36 E) 30

1. A group of pals, 72% of whom enjoy trekking in their spare time. Everyone else in the group does not. How may the number of friends, rounded to the next first decimal place, who don’t enjoy hiking be effectively stated as a percentage of the entire group?
 A) 0.28 B) 0.3 C) 0.2 D) 0.38 E) 0.7

1. A project is being worked on by a group of writers. The job should be finished in 140 hours. The team initially consists of ten writers. The anticipated project completion time drops by 4 hours for each additional writer on the team. The anticipated project completion time grows by 4 hours if a writer departs. The crew grows by 50% in size. The group then includes one more person. What is the updated projected date of project completion?
 A) 124 hours B) 130 hours C) 114 hours D) 120 hours E) 116 hours

1. Two pieces of soft leather, three pieces of hard rubber, one piece of wood, and two pieces of cotton are used to make one pair of shoes. How much toughened rubber and cotton are required in total to create 12 pairs of shoes?
 A) 24 parts cotton, 36 parts toughened rubber B) Toughened rubber in 30 parts and cotton in 20 parts C) 26 parts cotton, 39 parts toughened rubber D) 12 parts cotton, 18 parts toughened rubber E) 18 parts cotton, 24 parts toughened rubber

1. Over the course of eight months, an advertising-supported magazine makes \$120,000. The magazine’s earnings will increase by 20% if it adds two more ad places. Advertising space and revenue have a linear connection. In eight months, the journal is able to make \$156,000 from advertising. How many ad spots were made available?

1. Two men are attempting to strengthen their cardiovascular systems. One man runs five miles in the early morning. The second man runs a distance that is two times as long as the first, plus one additional mile. How far did the two men run together overall?
 A) 10. Miles B) 15 miles C) 20 miles D) 16 miles E) 14 miles

1. There are 148 footballs in a sports facility. In the first six months of the year, 28 footballs are either lost or irreparably damaged. Then, the facility buys 14 footballs. A total of 36 footballs are lost or irreparably damaged throughout the second half of the year. How many playable footballs does the facility have left at the end of the year?
 A) 94 B) 84 C) 98 D) 88 E) 96

1. The male has two interests. His primary interest is shooting, and he also enjoys wrestling. He must spend two fewer hours grappling for every hour more he spends shooting due to travel times and other issues. The man first spends 12 hours of wrestling and 20 hours of shooting per month. He chooses to spend an additional four hours filming the next month. How many hours does he wrestle in that month?
 A) 4 Hours B) 8 hours C) 6 hours D) 10 hours E) 12 hours

1. A worker puts in six hours a day and receives \$10.50 an hour. How much money does she make in a week if she works five days a week?
 A) \$ 325 B) \$ 315 C) \$ 305 D) \$ 300 E) \$ 330

1. Three pals choose out a hotel room to reserve. They create damage while they are here and are given a bill when they check out. The \$682 total amount due. The first friend pays \$242 toward the tab. How much does each friend pay if the two other friends split the remaining cost equally?
 A) \$ 280 B) \$ 240 C) \$ 220 D) \$ 231 E) \$ 210

1. A company encounters a challenging period. At first, it offered its salespeople a wage of \$20 per hour. Due to the challenging circumstances, this wage has been decreased by 25%. When business picks up, the proprietors raise each employee’s pay by 50% of what they were originally paid. How much does a salesperson currently make per hour?
 A) \$25 B) \$20 C) \$30 D) \$35 E) \$15

1. A company has a maximum possible workforce of 24 employees. The company pays each employee \$15 per hour. The company is currently working with only half of its full personnel. What is the total amount paid by the company if the present staff works for 6 hours?
 A) \$ 1220 B) \$ 1120 C) \$ 1200 D) \$ 1000 E) \$ 1080

1. A woman chooses to travel a distance by car. She travels at a 60 mph average. She has traveled a total of 12000 miles. What is the total distance she has traveled after three days, assuming she drives for 10 hours per day at an average speed?
 A) 1400 miles B) 1200 miles C) 600 miles D) 2400 miles E) 1800 miles

1. A business that offers outdoor training buys two parcels of property. 180 feet long is the first piece of land. The second piece of property is half as long as the first. How much land are on each plot together?
 A) 360 feet B) 370 feet C) 360 feet D) 290 feet E) 270 feet

1. A man creates a brand-new bank account. On the last day of each month, interest is paid on the account’s balance. In the first half of the month, he deposits \$140, and in the second, \$540. 10% is the interest rate. On the first day of the second month that the account has been open, what is his balance?
 A) \$748 B) \$680 C) \$740 D) \$728 E) \$734

1. A man spends \$780 on one work of art and \$2800 on another. The price of the art carries a 10% tax. What does the man pay in total?
 A) \$ 3838 B) \$ 3938 C) \$ 3983 D) \$ 3883 E) \$ 3838

1. Two types of tables are sold by a tiny local table manufacturer. The price difference between two types of tables is \$40 and \$56. The table manufacturer sells 120 of the first type of table and 600 of the second type over the course of three months. What is the appropriate ratio between the first table’s sales and the second table’s sales?
 A) 1:3 B) 1:4 C) 1:5 D) 1:6 E) 4:1

1. Eight toys are made in a day by a factory. How many toys does the factory manufacture in four weeks, assuming it produces the same number each day and is open seven days a week?
 A) 212 B) 224 C) 228 D) 204 E) 226

1. A man wants to put on more weight before a sporting event. The man is 220 pounds in the outset. The man increases his body weight by 5% during the first week of trying, and then he increases it by an extra 5% during the second week to reach his goal weight. What is the man’s new weight after this two-week period?
 A) 240 lb B) 242 lb C) 244 lb D) 238 lb E) 236 lb

1. A company uses vehicle A and vehicle B, two different types of transport vehicles. Vehicle A can accommodate 24 passengers, while Vehicle B can accommodate 18 passengers. The company uses three vehicle As and two vehicle Bs for a specific journey. All of the vehicles are completely occupied. How many passengers are traveling?
 A) 104 B) 106 C) 114 D) 108 E) 116

## Behavioural economics

1)
a) Discuss Neo-Classical Theory and critically examine the assumptions.
b) Solve the following game as a neo-classical economist.
c) What should be the move of player I in the first node.
d) Now think like behavioural economists and analyse the game. On what factors
would the outcome of the above game actually depend?
e) Under what conditions would player I choose the move X.
2) Explain with suitable example the concept of present bias in decision making.
3) Show that the problem of missing females is also a problem of present bias in our
(society’s) judgements.
4) Write a short note on nudge. Give examples and illustrate how can it be used in public
policy spaces.
5) Show that reciprocity and patience are precondition for cooperation to hold between
two parties.
6) What are heuristics? Write a short note on (Give suitable examples)
i) Representativeness
ii) Availability
7) Discuss the problem of low Female Labour Force participation as a behavioural
problem.
8) Formalise a choice problem under bounded rationality where behaviour is a function of
pears behaviour.
9) What determines the plan horizon of an agent. Illustrate using a suitable model.
10) In a class experiment two options were given:
a) Option A is a guaranteed return of Rs100
b) Option B is where one gets Rs 1000 if head comes in a coin toss or else 0.
What is the expected payoff from option B?
80% students choose option A, even though expected payoff of option B is greater
than the payoff from choosing A. What is the reason?
11) What is system1 and system2 type of thinking?
12) Describe using a game theoretical model the concept of fairness.
13) Two people decide to meet at a pre-decided venue between 6 to 7PM. Both are equally
likely to come at the venue at any time between 6 to 7PM. If they trust the other person
they will wait for some time before they leave. Trace the relationship between the
probability that they meet with trust.
14) What are the types of biases that may arise due to the following heuristics:
i) Representativeness
ii) Availability
15)
Consider the following static optimisation of making a choice between two paths,
red or blue. The red path gives a payoff of 8 while blue gives a payoff of 7.
Formally we may write the problem as:
Now consider the following dynamic problem:
There are 3 agents A, B, C.
A makes a decision till time = 2; B makes the decision till time = 4; and, C makes the
decision till time = 6. Their maximum value functions are given by
V𝐴
(t = 0) = max
{𝑐𝑡
}
∑ 𝑈(𝑐𝑡)
2
𝑡=0
V𝐵(t = 0) = max
{𝑐𝑡
}
∑ 𝑈(𝑐𝑡)
4
𝑡=0
V𝐶
(t = 0) = max
{𝑐𝑡
}
∑ 𝑈(𝑐𝑡)
6
𝑡=0
Find, V𝐴, V𝐵, V𝐶 and optimal path, {𝑐𝑡
} for each.
Why is the path different for each candidate?
𝑈(𝑐) = ൜ 𝑐 𝜖 {𝑹𝒆𝒅 , 𝑩𝒍𝒖𝒆}
8 𝑖𝑓 𝑹𝒆𝒅
7 𝑖𝑓 𝑩𝒍𝒖𝒆
Ar𝑔𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑈(𝑐) = 𝑹𝒆𝒅
𝑉( 𝐴 ) = max
𝑐
𝑈(𝑐) = 𝟖 , 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑉(. ) 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑓𝑢𝑛𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
16)Consider the above dynamic problem for candidate D and E, whose value function is
given by V𝐷( 𝑡 = 0) = max
{𝑐𝑡
}
∑ 𝛽𝐷
𝑡𝑈(𝑐𝑡
)
6
𝑡=0 and V𝐸
( 𝑡 = 0) = max
{𝑐𝑡
}
∑ 𝛽𝐸
𝑡𝑈(𝑐𝑡
)
6
𝑡=0
respectively, where 𝛽𝐷 = 0.2 and 𝛽𝐸 = 0.8
Find V𝐷, V𝐸 and optimal path, {𝑐𝑡
} for each.
17) X and Y are two individuals who have the following hypothesis regarding workforce
participation of females:
log (
𝑝
1−𝑝
) = 𝛽0 + 𝛽1𝑒𝑑𝑢 , 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑝 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑏𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑓𝑒𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘;
𝛽0 = −4.11 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛽1 = 0.48
X’s mother is working while Y’s mother is a housewife. Therefore, X has a prior belief
that 𝑝 = 0.8 and Y has a prior belief that 𝑝 = 0.15. They both are friends now and
therefore are exposed to similar types of people around them. They observe education
level as well as working status of their 10 female friends. This leads to an update of
their believe over hypothesis. Table shows their observation. Find the updated
probability of hypothesis for each X and Y respectively, given their observation.
Status Education
Working 15
N

## CDEV 53 Extra Credit Exam

• Match the words to language acquisition: (7 pts)
1. Sounds idiomatic
2. Sentences phonology
4. Word learning overgeneralization
5. Pre-meaning infer grammar
6. Common rules babbling
7. Meanings shaping
8. Forming plurals lexicon
9. Selective utterances syntax
10. True version semantics
11. No relationship                                                 imitation
12. Innate tendencies pragmatics
13. Special version scaffolding
14. Invitation for newness                                         motherese

• Name the acuities developed during infancy.  1 pt

• What are the temperament dimensions? 2 pts

• What is the opposite of? 3 pts
1. Non-REM
2. Expressive style
3. Signaling
4. Contingent
5. Causality studies
6. Semantic relations

• What does Parten and Piaget play theories differ? 2 pts

• What theory/theorist is reflected in the Ape Story? 2 pts

• What did Lil Genie’s experience teach us about development? 2 pts

• What is mindset and why does it matter? 2 pts

• What is the significance of the Word Gap Study? 3 pts

• Name the theorists/theories reflected in the Island Story. What is your rationale for your answer? 2 pts

• According to Dr Burke, how is PTSD different from Toxic Stress? 2 pts

• Why is self-esteem understood as an internal judge? 2 pts

• What does the Mirror Test demonstrate? 2 pts

• Name the influences on attachment formation. 1 pts

• Explain conservation. 2 pt

• What causes a rapid rate of synaptogenesis? 1 pts

• What contemporary study reflects the life of Sara Baartman? 1 pts

• Name the primary domain: 12 pts
1. Buttoning clothing
2. Tracking
3. Self-esteem
4. Counting
5. Self-Awareness
6. Writing
7. Grouping objects
8. Listening
9. Language
10. Temperament
11. Attachment
12. Playing with friends
13. Myelination
14. Conception
15. Synaptogenesis
16. Acuity
17. Assimilation
18. Habituation
19. Coordination and integration of sensory information
20. Ecocentrism
21. Self-regulation
22. Classification

• Why do preschoolers use aggression and why does it change? 2 pts

• List play types that are based on attitudes and dispositions.  2 pts

• When were young children viewed as talented pets? 1 pt

• What factors influence prosocial behavior? 1 pts

• What is the connection between Harlow, Bowlby, Maslow, and Erikson? 4 pts

• Pick two grand theorists from 2 different theoretical frameworks. (2 pts) Describe ALL components of each ones theory (5 pts). How do the theorists differ (3 pts)? How are the theorist the same (3 pts)?

• Which attachment type is the most problematic? Why? 3 pts

• Arrange the following in order of development (From 1st to last): 5 pts

2. Primary Circular Reactions
3. Loss of body fat
4. Roll from stomach
5. Loss of Babinski
6. Moro
7. First symbiosis
8. Sucking
9. Associative Play
10. Initiating social interchanges

## biology

This Question Paper consists of two Sections, viz., ‘A’ and ‘B’.
(ii) All questions from Section ‘A’ are to be attempted.
(iii) Section ‘B’ has two options. Candidates are required to attempt questionsfrom one option only.
{ZX}e : (i) Bg ‡ÌZ-nÃ _| Xmo I S> h¢—I S> “A’ VWm I S> “~’ü&
(ii) I S> “A’ Ho\$ g^r ‡ÌZm| H\$mo hb H\$aZm h° &
(iii) I S> “~’ _| Xmo\$ {dH În h¢ & narjm{W©`m| H\$mo Ho\$db EH\$ {dH În Ho\$ hr ‡ÌZm| Ho\$ CŒma XoZo h¢ &
SEC TION–A
I S–A
1. Name the type of root modification found in Cuscuta. What is its function? 1H\$ÒHw\$Q>m (A_a~ob) H\$s OãS> Ho\$ Í\$nmßVaU _| nm`r OmZo dmbr {H\$Ò_ H\$m Zm_ ~VmBEü& CgH\$m H\$m`© ^r
~VmBEü&
2. Draw a neat diagram of anaphase stage of mitosis in an animal cell. 1‡mUr-H\$mo{eH\$m _| g_gyÃr {d^mOZ H\$s nÌMmdÒWm H\$m EH\$ Òd¿N> AmaoI ~ZmBEü&
3. A person has swelling on the front of his neck. Name the disease he is suffering
from and the cause of it. 1EH\$ Ï`{∫\$ H\$s JX©Z Ho\$ gm_Zo dmbo ^mJ na gyOZ Am J`r h°ü& Cg amoJ H\$m Zm_ ~VmBE {Oggo dh
nr{ãS>V h° Am°a Bg amoJ H\$m H\$maU ^r ~VmBEü&
314/OSS/206A2
4. A person suffered from smallpox at the age of ten years and thereafter he never
had it during his lifetime. Which type of immunity the person has developed? 1EH\$ Ï`{∫\$ H\$mo Xg df© H\$s Am`w _| MoMH\$ {ZH\$br Wr Am°a CgHo\$ ~mX Cgo OrdZ n`©›V MoMH\$ Zht
{ZH\$brü& ~VmBE {H\$ Bg Ï`{∫\$ _| {H\$g ‡H\$ma H\$s ‡{Vajm CÀnfi hmo J`rü&
5. Define the term ‘ecosystem’. What are the principal components of an
ecosystem? 2″nm[aVßÃ’ e„X H\$s n[a^mfm {b{IEü& EH\$ nm[aVßÃ Ho\$ ‡_wI KQ>H\$m| Ho\$ Zm_ ~VmBEü&
6. Draw a simple diagram to show circulatory system of cockroach and label any
three of the following parts : 2heart; dor sal si nus; perivisceral si nus; perineural si nus
{VbM≈>o Ho\$ n[agßMmar VßÃ H\$mo Xem©Zo dmbm EH\$ gab AmaoI ~ZmBE Am°a {ZÂZ{b{IV _| go {H\$›ht VrZ
^mJm| H\$mo Zm_mß{H\$V H\$s{OE :
ˆX`; n•> H\$moQ>a (gmBZg); n`©VaßJ H\$moQ>a (noar{dgab gmBZg); n[aVß{ÃH\$m H\$moQ>a (noar›`yab gmBZg)
7. When the stem of a herbaceous plant is cut few inches above its base with a
sharp knife, water is seen oozing out from the cut end. Name the phenomenon.
Why does it happen? 2O~ {H\$gr emH\$s` nm°Yo Ho\$ VZo H\$mo EH\$ VoµO Yma dmbo MmHy\$ go nm°Yo Ho\$ AmYmar ^mJ Ho\$ Hw\$N> BßM D\$na
go H\$mQ>m J`m V~ H\$Q>o h˛E ^mJ go nmZr {ZH\$bVm h˛Am {XIm`r nãS>mü& Bg n[aKQ>Zm H\$m Zm_ ~VmBEü&
~VmBE Eogm ä`m| hmoVm h°ü&
8. Suppose a plant in your garden is not growing in height. Name the plant
hormone that can be used to solve this problem. Mention another function of
this hormone in plants. 2_mZ br{OE AmnHo\$ ~JrMo _| H\$moB© nm°Ym bß~mB© _| Zht ~ãT> ahm üh°ü& Cg nmXn hm_m}Z H\$m Zm_ ~VmBE
{Ogo Bg g_Ò`m H\$mo Xya H\$aZo Ho\$ {bE ‡`w∫\$ {H\$`m Om gH\$Vm h°ü& nm°Ym| _| Bg hm_m}Z H\$m H\$moB© A›`
314/OSS/206A3[P.T.O.
9. Why is genetic code said to be degenerate in nature? 2AmZwdß{eH\$ Hy\$Q> Ho\$ ÒdÍ\$n H\$mo Anım{gV ä`m| ~Vm`m OmVm h°?
10. Why should we conserve natural resources? Give two points. 2h_| ‡mH•\${VH\$ gßgmYZm| H\$m gßajU ä`m| H\$aZm Mm{hE? Xmo H\$maU ~VmBEü&
11. List any four ways by which AIDS is transmitted. 4{H\$›ht Mma {d{Y`m| H\$s gyMr ~ZmBE {OZHo\$ H\$maU AIDS H\$m gßMmaU hmoVm h°ü&
12. Define the term ‘tissue’. Mention two structural characteristics of epithelial
tissue of an animal. Which category of epithelial tissue is found in the lining of
kidney tubules? Mention its function in kidney. 4″D\$VH\$’ e„X H\$s n[a^mfm {b{IEü& {H\$gr ‡mUr Ho\$ E{nWr{b`_r D\$VH\$ H\$s Xmo gßaMZmÀ_H\$ {deofVmAm|
H\$s MMm© H\$s{OEü& d•∏\$ Z{bH\$mAm| Ho\$ AÒVa _| nm`m OmZo dmbm E{nWr{b`_r D\$VH\$ {H\$g loUr _| AmVm
h°? d•∏\$ _| CgH\$m ä`m H\$m`© h°?
13. Draw a neat diagram showing microscopic structure of testis of man and label
the following : 4(a) Seminiferous tubule
(b) Vasa efferentia
(c) Rete testis
(d) Testicular lobe
_mZd Ho\$ d•fU H\$s gy˙_Xeu gßaMZm H\$mo Xem©Zo dmbm EH\$ Òd¿N> AmaoI ~ZmBE, Am°a Cg_| {ZÂZ{b{IV
H\$m Zm_mßH\$Z H\$s{OE :
(H\$) ewH´\$OZH\$ dm{hH\$mE±
(I) ewH´\$dm{hH\$m
(J) d•fU Om{bH\$m
(K) d•fU nm{bH\$m
314/OSS/206A4
14. Two men claimed paternity of a two-month-old baby. Suggest the modern
genetic technique that can be used to identify the real father of the baby.
Enumerate this technique in three steps. 4Xmo Ï`{∫\$`m| Zo Xmo _mh Ho\$ EH\$ ~Éo H\$m {nVm hmoZo H\$m Xmdm {H\$`mü& Cg AmYw{ZH\$ AmZwdß{eH\$ VH\$ZrH\$
H\$m gwPmd Xr{OE {Ogo ~Éo Ho\$ dmÒV{dH\$ {nVm H\$s nhMmZ H\$aZo Ho\$ {bE ‡`w∫\$ {H\$`m Om gHo\$ü& Bg
VH\$ZrH\$ Ho\$ VrZ MaUm| H\$s gyMr ~ZmBEü&
15. Suggest three ways by which people working in nuclear establishments can be
containers? 4CZ VrZ {d{Y`m| H\$m gwPmd Xr{OE {OZgo Zm{^H\$s` ‡{V>mZm| _| H\$m`© H\$a aho bmoJm| H\$s Zm{^H\$r`
{d{H\$aUm| go gwajm H\$s Om gHo\$ü& Zm{^H\$s` Ad{eÔ>m| H\$m {ZnQ>mZ grgo Ho\$ nmÃm| Ho\$ ^rVa aI H\$a ä`m|
{H\$`m OmVm h°?
16. How is the level of hormone in man maintained through feedback mechanism?
Explain briefly by giving a suitable example. 4_ZwÓ` _| hm_m}Zm| H\$m ÒVa nwZ^©aU ‡Umbr ¤mam {H\$g ‡H\$ma ~Zm`o aIm OmVm h°? EH\$ Cn`w∫\$ CXmhaU
XoVo h˛E gßjon _| Ï`mª`m H\$s{OEü&
17. What are transgenics? How are transgenic plants produced using
Agrobacterium tumefaciens? Describe in brief. 4nmaOrZr ä`m hmoVo h¢? EJ´mo~°äQ>r[a`_ Q>y_r\o\${g`›g H\$m Cn`moJ H\$aVo h˛E nmaOrZr nmXn {H\$g ‡H\$ma
‡m· {H\$`o Om gH\$Vo h¢? gßjon _| ~VmBEü&
18. Briefly explain the fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane. How does
transport of small molecules occur across it? Explain any two. 6flbmµ¡_m {PÑr (Ord–Ï` {PÑr) Ho\$ ‚bwBS> _moµOoH\$ _m∞S>b H\$s gßjon _| Ï`mª`m H\$s{OEü& ~VmBE {H\$ Bg
{PÑr Ho\$ Ama-nma N>moQ>o AUwAm| H\$m n[adhZ {H\$g ‡H\$ma hmoVm h°ü& {H\$›ht Xmo {d{Y`m| H\$s Ï`mª`m
H\$s{OEü&
314/OSS/206A5[P.T.O.
19. What are the two criteria for an element to be essential for a plant? State two
functions each of magnesium and phosphorous. 6EH\$ nm°Yo Ho\$ {bE AmdÌ`H\$ {H\$gr VŒd H\$s Xmo H\$gm°{Q>`m± H\$m°Z-gr h¢? _°ær{e`_ Am°a \\$m∞Ò\\$moag _| go
20. Using punnet square, work out a dihybrid cross between homozygous round
yellow and wrinkled green seed varieties of a pea plant. Identify the Mendelian
principle which the F2
phenotypic ratio refers to. 6nZoQ> dJ© H\$m Cn`moJ H\$aVo h˛E _Q>a Ho\$ nm°Yo Ho\$ g_`wΩ_Or Jmob nrbo Am°a PwauXma hao ~rOm| Ho\$ ~rM
{¤gßH\$a gßH\$aU (H´\$m∞g) H\$am`o OmZo na ‡m· gßV{V kmV H\$s{OEü& Cg _o›S>obr` {Z`_ H\$mo nhMm{ZE
{OgH\$m ‡_mU F2
_| \\$sZmoQ>mBn AZwnmV go {_bVm h°ü&
21. Explain the role of the following in the digestion of food in human body : 6(a) Succus entericus
(b) Hydrochloric acid
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23. Give the scientific name of fruit fly. 1\´\$yQ> ‚bmB© H\$m d°km{ZH\$ Zm_ ~VmBEü&
24. Your teacher has asked you to collect amoeba for an experiment. How will you
culture it in the laboratory? 2AmnHo\$ A‹`mnH\$ Zo EH\$ ‡`moJ H\$aZo Ho\$ {bE AmnH\$mo A_r~m EH\${ÃV H\$aZo Ho\$ {bE H\$hm h°ü& ‡`moJembm
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26. (a) State any three differences between a simple microscope and a compound
microscope.
(b) How are the plant specimens dried and preserved for preparing
herbarium? 6(H\$) EH\$ gab Am°a EH\$ Hß\$nmC S> gy˙_Xeu Ho\$ ~rM H\$moB© VrZ AßVa ~VmBEü&
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23. Give the scientific name of the cuttlefish. 1H\$Q>b{\\$e H\$m d°km{ZH\$ Zm_ ~VmBEü&
24. Your brother cultivates mushroom on a commercial scale. Suggest two ways to
preserve it for a long time. 2AmnH\$m ^mB© Ï`mnm[aH\$ ÒVa na _eÍ\$_ (Hw\$Hw\$a_wŒmm) H\$s IoVr H\$aZm MmhVm h°ü& Hw\$Hw\$a_wŒmm| H\$mo bÂ~r
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26. (a) How does forest prevent soil erosion? Give three ways.
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## poetry

Rosa Alcala – “The Pyramid Scheme” (1)
Jake Graham – “I Won’t Live Long” (73)
Yusef Komunyakaa – “Wheelchair” (88)
John Yau – “Overnight” (161)
Kevin Young – “Dog Tags” (167)
Ishion Hutchinson – “David” 82
we will do some work based on the first six poems from the file “Reading List.”
1. I am assuming you read the first six poems in the file “Reading List.”
2. The first five poems on the list are about an aging relative who used to be
very mean but is now in a nursing home with dementia, an old person telling
a young person they want to be remembered, someone dealing with a
disability and being inspired by a relative who also had one, giving a farewell
to a friend, and a deceased relative who had a vice that took away all the
family’s money (gambling).
3. When looking at the file “Literacies,” which would be the best to apply to one
of these poems? Tell me which and write 1-2 sentences on why (no need to
quote).
4. Write 2-3 sentences total on how you relate to the topics brought up in #2. If
you are struggling, you might write about another way you connect to one of
the poems (it might help to read the author’s comments in the back, though
not all of them comment). If you are REALLY struggling, you might mention
5. The poem “David” is a poem about a statue of the same title. This is known
as an Ekphrasis, which is writing about a work of art, Look at the five links on
Canvas titled Ekphrasis, and write 1-2 sentences on the “story” the image is
telling. It might not be easy but do your best. What is the story there? Is there
one? Also, mention 2-3 images you found interesting.
the-birthday-1915-Marc-Chagall.jpg (948×800) (totallyhistory.com)
40042455812_381806f31f_b.jpg (1024×683) (staticflickr.com)
kahlo.jpg (820×550) (imgix.net)
The-Sound-of-Silence-1800.jpg (1600×1103) (aaronreedphotography.com)
The-Sound-of-Silence-1800.jpg (1600×1103) (aaronreedphotography.com)
Literacies
The following modes of literary and rhetorical criticism and some of their key underpinnings
have been
Rhetoric and Popular Culture.
Economic Criticism
-Materialism, bases, superstructure
According to this type of criticism, everything belonging to the world of ideas, concepts, and
behavior comes from material conditions and practices. How do the material conditions of the
story, ie the available resources, relationships, cultural norms, and natural environment
influence characters’ behaviors?
-Economic metaphors, commodities, signs
How are certain physical details mentioned in the story indicators of class status, or economic
conditions? How do these conditions vary among characters? Do the various conditions
each have their own accompanying images?
What would be considered a “target” audience? Why? What type of reader would be inclined to
side with the protagonist, or dislike the protagonist, and why?
Visual Criticism

Images as the focus of meaning attribution
Do images serve a rhetorical purpose? Do they accentuate the central meanings/moods of the
text? How?

Images as collective memory, community
Identify some important images in the text and describe their possible cultural meanings. How
might “insider” and “outsider” cultures, as they pertain to the world of the story, see these
images?
Psychoanalytical Criticism

Making the mind and the self
How do characters define themselves in relation to other people? When and why do they say
they are “like” certain people, and “unlike” others? Who are their friends and enemies, and
what does this say about them?

Desire
2
What is it that the protagonist wants, and why do they want it? How might the protagonist react
to
not
getting what they want? Is anyone trying to prevent this character from getting what they
want? What does
that
person desire?
Feminist Criticism

Standpoint theory
This theory states the world is only known to us through marginal perspectives that are limited
by class, race, gender, geography, and sexual identity. Are the perspectives of the characters
limited in these ways, or not? Why is this so?

Gendered language and images
What power structures do the characters experience? What are the “normal” or “expected”
gender roles? Is gender related to power or the lack thereof in any way? How are different
genders expected to behave? Is this significant to the plot?

Empowerment and alternative worldviews
Who exists outside of the dominant power structures of the story? How do they feel about this?
What is their emotional reaction? To what extent is gender a factor in their outsider status?
Narrative Criticism
-Language and motive
Who in the story is adept at using language? How does this serve them? How do characters
attempt to persuade each other? Why or why not does persuasion work?
-Comedy and tragedy
How is social transgression a source of comedy? Is the transgressor accepted back into
society?
What social taboos are committed by the characters? What are the consequences of these
actions? Do the consequences represent societal rejection?
Media Criticism
-Medium
How are technology and media used socially? Professionally? For good? For evil?
-Media logic
How do media and technology influence people’s daily routines? Their expectations? Their
relationships? Their value systems?

## differential equations

James start for his school at 8:20am on his bicycle if he travels at the speed of 10km/h then reaches his school 8 minutes late but on travelling at 16km/h he reaches the school 10 minutes early.At what time the school does started

## interpersonal counselling and interview skills

1. Complete the following table to describe each of the factors listed and how they impact on the communication

 Factor Description of factor and impact on the communication process Context Participants Rules

 Factor Description of factor and impact on the communication process Messages Channels Noise Feedback

1. Complete the following table to explain how each factor impacts on communication and how it can be

 Communication barrier Description of impact on the communication Resolution strategy Environmental Physical Individual perceptions Cultural issues Language

 Communication barrier Description of impact on the communication Resolution strategy Age issues Disability

1. List three mechanisms that enhance effective interpersonal

1. Complete the following table by giving an example of all of the following non-verbal communication and describing what this could

 Facial expressions Posture Silence

1. Describe each of the following learning

 Visual

 Auditory Kinaesthetic

1. Describe how trauma and stress can impact on the communication process, specifically each of the factors

 Concentration and attention Memory Use of verbal and written language Use of body language

1. Explain a consideration in relation to using the technique of challenging with a client impacted by trauma and

1. As a counsellor, describe a process you might use to recognize your

1. List two values you have and describe how these can impact on the counselling

## Statistics

What is the result of the correlation test between feelings for one’s spouse (v405) and satisfaction with life (v301)? (use 4 decimal places)

What is the exact p-value for the correlation test? (use 4 decimal places)

What is the result of the chi-square test using variable v1801 (Gender) with v402 (intimate partner relationship)? (use 4 decimal places)

For v402, 5=don’t have an intimate partner, 1=have an intimate partner. Exclude those who are coded 0.

What is the exact p-value for the chi-square test? (use 4 decimal places)

What is the t-test statistic using the variables v1801 (Sex; IV) and v2000 (age; DV)? (use 4 decimal places; 2-tailed test)

What is the exact p-value for the t-test test? (use 4 decimal places)

# Q.1   In a farm there are some cows and birds. If there are total 35 heads and 110 legs then how many cows and birds are there?

Ans:

Algorithm

• Each bird has 1 head and 2 legs and cow has 1 head and 4 Step 1: Start

Step 2: Suppose number of cows are x and birds are y. Step 3: Total number of heads are 35 then x * y = 35 Step 4: Total legs are 110 then 4x * 2y = 110

Step 5: Multiply step 3 by 2 then 2(x * y) = 35 x 2 so 2x * 2y = 70

Step 6: Subtract step 5 from step 4 so 4x * 2y = 110- 2x * 2y = 70 so become 2x    40 the value of X= 20

Step 7: Put value of x = 20 in equation x * y = 35 so value of y becomes 15 Step 8: So total number of cows are 20 and total number of birds are 15

ebraic Form Let no of cows Let no of birds Total heads = 35

Then x *  y = 35———- (i)

Total legs = 110

Then 4x * 2y = 110——- (ii)

Multiply equation (i) by “2” 2(x * y) = 35 x 2

2x * 2y =

Subtraction equation (iii) from (ii) 4x*2y      110

2x * 2 y    70

2x             40

40’2

20

Put x = 20 in equation (i) X * y = 35

20* y = 35 Y = 35 – 20

So number of cows x = 20 So number of birds y = 15

• Draw a flowchart that Input two numbers n1 and n2. Determine whether nlI divides

Ans:

• Draw a nowchart that Input a year and determine whether it is a leap year or not. Ans:

• Draw a nowchart that Input a number and calculate its factorial. Ans:

• Draw a nowchart to fmd LCM (Least Common Multiple) of two numbers. Ans:

# Q.6   Draw a nowchart that Input a number and display its factors. Ans:

• Define problem and problem Ans:

Problem:

A problem is an obstacle, hurdle, difficulty or challenge, or any situation that needs to be removed or solved.

Problem solving:

Problem-solving is a skill which can be developed by following a well-organized approach. Programming is also a problem solving activity. Problem Solving is the main task of computer science which is the job of computer programmer.

# Q.8   List the problem solving steps. Ans:

The following five steps are involved in problem solving 1: Defining a Problem

2: Understanding a Problem. 3: Planning a Solution.

4: Defining Candid Solutions. 5: Selecting the Best Solution

# Q.9   What do you mean by define the problem? Mention strategies. Ans:

Defining the problem is initial stage of problem solving. A well-defined problem is the one that does not contain any ambiguities. When we are going to solve some problem first we need to see whether the problem is defined well or not. If the problem is not defined well first of all define the problem. If the problem is not well defined then use the following are strategies to define the problem:

• Gain Background
• Use
• Draw a

# Q.10    What do you mean by well-defined problem? Ans:

A well-defined problem is the one that does contain ambiguities. All the conditions are clearly specified and it has a clear goal. It is easy to understand and solve.

# Q.11    What do you know understanding the problem or analyzing a problem? Ans:

The process of understanding the problem for developing its solution is called analyzing the problem. It is important to understand the problem before jumping into the solution of the problem. Understanding of a problem usually includes identification of the 5 Ws (what, who, when, where, and why).

# Q.12    Give one example of understanding the problem by using 5 Ws? Ans:

Understanding of a problem usually includes identification of the 5 Ws (what, who, when, where, and why).

Example: Suppose your class teacher assigns you a task to prepare a list of students in your school whose names start with letter ‘A’. The list is required in order to prepare an alphabetical directory of all school students and there is only one week to complete the task. We can analyse this problem by identifying 5Ws in the problem statement as given below:

• What: List of students names starting with letter ‘A’.
• Who:
• Why: To prepare the directory of
• When: Within a
• Where:

# Q.13    What do you mean by planning a solution? Mention strategies for problem solving. Ans:

Planning the solution of the problem is a creative stage of problem solving. It refers to dividing the solution into steps and arranging them into proper order that will solve the problem

• Divide and conquer
• Guess, Check and Improve
• Act it Out
• Prototype (Draw)

# Q.14    Define Candid Solutions

Ans:

The word candid refers to something spontaneous and unplanned. All the possible solutions of a problem that produce estimated result are known as candid solutions. To find candid solutions of a problem programmer has to look for different methods to solve the problem and come up with several solutions. It is not necessary that candid solution is the actual solution of the problem.

# Q.15    What do you mean by selecting the best solution? Ans:

After defining the candid solutions, only one solution can be selected. The selection of final solution of a problem should be based on the following criteria.

Speed: The selected solution of the problem should be efficient.

Cost: The selected solution of the problem should provide a cost-effective way of implementation.

Complexity: The selected solution of the problem should not be complicated. It should contain minimum number of instructions ‘ simple steps.

# Q.16    What is Gain Background knowledge to define the problem. Ans:

We try to know the situation and circumstances in which the problem is happening. In this way, we can identify the given state. It also helps to know what a good solution will look like. How we shall be able to measure the solution.

# Q.17    Define the problem by using guesses. Ans:

We try to guess the unknown information through appropriate guesses. These guesses may be based upon our past experiences.

# Q.18    Define “Draw a picture” strategy for well-defined problem. Ans:

If the problem is not well-defined, we can draw a picture and fill the undefined information.

# Q.19    What is top down design or divide and conquer rule? Ans:

At this stage the problem is decomposed into sub-problems. Rather on concentrating the bigger problem as a whole, we try to solve each sub-program separately. This leads to a simple solution. This technique is known as top down design (also called divide and conquer rule).

# Q.20    Define Algorithm md nowchart. Ans:

Algorithm:

An algorithm is a finite set of steps, which, if followed, accomplish a particular task. It is written in natural language for human understanding.

Flowchart:

Flowchart is the graphical or visual representation of an algorithm to solve problem using symbols.

# Q.21    What is the purpose of oval shape / Terminal shape symbol in nowchart? Ans:

An oval shape symbol that represents the Start or End of a flowchart.

# Q.22    What is the purpose of Input/Output Symbol in nowchart? Ans:

A parallelogram represents either input or output operation regardless of the input or output method.

# Q.23    What is the purpose of Rectangle symbol in flowchart? Ans:

Rectangle shape symbol is used to represent the process or action taken or shows all the calculations and store results.

# Q.24    What is the purpose of Diamond symbol in flowchart? Ans:

A diamond represents a decision symbol used for comparison or a decision. It changes the flow of control and computer decides a particular path to be followed.

# Q.25    What is the purpose of Connector symbol in flowchart? Ans:

A small circle represents a connector symbol and is used to join various parts of a Flow chart.

# Q.26    Draw a flowchart to convert Celsius (Centigrade) to Fahrenheit temperature. Ans:

• Draw a flowchart to find acceleration of moving objects with given mass and the force.

Ans:

• Draw a flowchart to fmd the volume of cube. Ans:

• Draw a flowchart to fmd plain interest on an amount. Ans:
• Draw a flowchart to fmd the area of a parallelogram. Ans:
• Draw a flowchart to determine whether a given number is odd or even. Ans:

# Q.32    What is role of algorithm in problem solving? Ans:

The Role of algorithm in problem solving is as follows:

• An algorithm has a vital role in problem solving as it provides a step-by-step guide to the problem
• Computer programming is the process of taking an algorithm and coding it in a programming
• Formulating an algorithm is the first step for developing a computer program

# Q.33    How we measure the efficiency of an algorithm? Ans:

The efficiency of an algorithm is measured on the basis of two metrics:

1. Number of steps: An algorithm must be considered efficient if it takes less number of steps to reach the
2. Space used in computer memory: An algorithm using less space in computer memory is considered more efficient with respect to memory

# Q.34    What is Test Data? Give example. Ans:

Test data is data which has been specially identified for use in test, typically of computer program. After solving a problem, we need to test whether the solution is correct or not, and for testing, we need “Test Data”.

Example: If we want to test the algorithm to find the largest among three given numbers a, b and c, then we need three values. These values can be positive, negative or zero, e.g., (a = 100, b = 200, c = 30), (a =22, b = -45, c 38). (a = 14, b 0, c  10), etc. So, for thinking about  testing, we also need to think about test data.

# Q.35    Why test data is important? Ans:

After solving a problem, we need to test whether the solution is correct or not, and for testing, we need Test Data. Test data helps to point out the defects and errors made during finding a solution to some problem. By using test data we improve the solution of the problem.

# Q.36    What is Valid and Invalid test data? Ans:

Valid test data is data that is valid with the input requirement of the algorithm while Invalid test data is data that is invalid with the input requirement of the algorithm.

# Q.37    Compare verification and validation. Ans:

Verification means to test if the solution is actually solving the same problem for which it was designed while Validation means to test whether the solution is correct or not.

# Q.38    What is a Trace Table?

Ans:

A trace table is a technique used to test algorithms, in order to make sure that no logical errors occur while the algorithm is being processed.

# Q.39    What happen if you give invalid data for testing the algorithm? Give example. Ans:

When you give invalid data as input to the algorithm during testing process then algorithm gives you unexpected output. Testing an algorithm using invalid data ensures that the algorithm can gracefully handle unexpected data inputs.

Example: If an algorithm is supposed to take a numeric value between 1 and 50 as input, but that input is not between 1 to 50 so it is invalid test data.

# Q.40    Which thing you first see when problem statement is given? Ans:

When we solve a problem statement, first we need to see whether the problem is defined well or not.

# Q.41    What happens if your algorithm is failed during verification? Ans:

If an algorithm is failed during verification, then it is important to identify the root cause of failure and then to correct it. Sometimes the error is logical. It means the solution is working but not giving required results.

# Q.42    What are advantages of flowchart? Ans:

Some advantages of flowchart are following:

• Easy to
• Easy to understand problem
• Easy to identity errors (if any).
• Easy to observe flow from one step to the

# Q.43    What are disadvantages of flowchart? Ans:

Following are some disadvantages of flowchart:

• More time is required to draw a
• Modifying a flowchart is not very easy every
• It is not suitable for very large and complex

# Q.44    What are advantages of algorithm? Ans:

Some advantages of algorithm are following:

• Easy to
• Techniques to write an algorithm are easy to
• To solve a large problem, algorithms are

# Q.45    What are disadvantages of algorithm? Ans:

Some disadvantages of algorithm are following:

• Modifying an existing algorithm is not very easy every
• Showing the flow from one step to the other is not very
• Usage of goto makes it difficult to identify errors

# Q.46    What do you mean by Boundary test data values? Ans:

A solution is tested on extreme values.

Example: To calculate interest we consider principal amount as 0 or a very huge amount.

# Q.47    What do you mean by Absent data? Ans:

It is also important to investigate that the solution still works if less number of inputs are given than expected. Example: If a system asks to enter driving license number, then everyone cannot provide this information. It is important to see how the system reacts in such situations.

# Q.48    What do you mean by. Wrong data format? Ans:

It is to check how the system reacts on entering data in wrong format.

Example: Giving a numeric value as input when alphabet is expected.

# Q.49    Write any two criteria for selection of final solution of a problem. Ans:

Two criteria are following:

Speed: When the solution is implemented in a programming language, the program should run fast.

Cost: The selected solution of the problem should provide a cost-effective way of implementation

# Q.50    What do you know about Act it Out strategy? Ans:

In this strategy the designer defines the list of “to-do” tasks. Afterwards he’she performs the task.

# Q.51    What do you know about Prototype (Draw)? Ans:

This technique draws a pictorial representation of the solution. It is not the final solution. However, it may help a designer to understand the important components of the solution.

# Q.52    What are the tasks performed by most of the nowchart? OR List steps for drawing

a flowchart. Ans:

Input to the flowchart

Type of processing required Decisions to be taken

The output to be produced after processing

# Q.53    How to plan a solution using guess, check and improve strategy? Ans:

The designer guesses a solution to a problem Checks the correctness of the solution.

If the solution is not according to expectations, then he’she refines the solution the refinement is an iterative process.